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In Stock. Birdsong is controlled by discrete brain regions that are interconnected.

Bird Song: Biological Themes and Variations - Clive K. Catchpole, Peter J. B. Slater - Google книги

There are two such neural pathways: the motor pathway, necessary for song production, and the anterior forebrain pathway AFP , necessary for song learning and plasticity Figure 3. RA then sends axons to two separate motor nuclei whose motor neurons innervate the vocal organ in birds, called the syrinx, and the respiratory muscles to produce song while coordinating breathing. Studies deactivating parts of the neural circuit for birdsong via lesions highlight functions of the AFP.

Further studies have shown that lesions of Area X in juveniles prevent crystallization whereas lesions of LMAN in juveniles result in permanently crystallized, atypical songs. Lesions of LMAN, in fact, make their songs truly stable. It prevents adult birds from learning new songs and also shields already-learned song from deteriorating after deafening.

There are striking similarities between the development of birdsong and human speech. In both cases, dialects and languages are culturally transmitted during a sensitive period of learning. Both birdsong and human speech are controlled by discrete neural circuitry and auditory feedback is essential in normal learning.

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These parallels have attracted scientists to use birdsong as a model for research in human speech pathology. In the past ten years, neuroscientists discovered that a mutation in one gene called FOXP2 causes a particular speech and language disorder White et al. Using songbirds as a model, researchers found that the FOXP2 gene is necessary to accurately imitate the sounds of a tutor song Haesler et al. These recent discoveries demonstrate that birdsong constitutes an excellent model for exploring the molecular basis and behavioral development of human speech.

I thank S. MacDougall-Shackleton, A. Diez, T. Farrell, Z. Hall, T. Luloff, S. Nebel, G. Salze, and K. Schmidt for their valuable input on the manuscript and G. Salze for his assistance in figure creation. Beecher, M. Functional aspects of song learning in songbirds. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20, — Bottjer, S.

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Circuits, hormones, and learning: vocal behavior in songbirds. Journal of Neurobiology 33, — Brainard, M. What songbirds teach us about learning. Nature , — Brenowitz, E. An introduction to birdsong and the avian song system. Catchpole, C.

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Bird song: Biological Themes and Variations , 2nd ed. Haesler, S. Incomplete and inaccurate vocal imitation after knockdown of FoxP2 in songbird basal ganglia nucleus area X. PLoS Biology 5, e — Konishi, M. The role of auditory feedback in the control of vocalization in the white-crowned sparrow. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 22, — MacDougall-Shackleton, S. Nolan, E. Nonlocal male mountain white-crowned sparrows have lower paternity and higher parasite loads than males singing local dialect.

wotaquarium.com/hangouts-tracker-phone-software.php Behavioral Ecology 13, — Marler, P. A comparative approach to vocal learning: song development in white-crowned sparrows. Mooney, R. Neurobiology of song learning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 19, — Nelson, D. Selection-based learning in bird song development. Thorpe, W. The learning of song patterns by birds, with especial reference to the song of the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. Ibis , — West, M. Female visual displays affect the development of male song in the cowbird.


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White, S. Singing mice, songbirds, and more: models for FOXP2 function and dysfunction in human speech and language. It is written with a wide readership in mind so that, while undergraduate and postgraduate students of biology may gain particularly from it, both professional biologists interested in bird behaviour and amateur ornithologists with some knowledge of biology will also find it a mine of information. Konishi, M. Birdsong: from behavior to neuron. Catchpole, CK Song repertoires and reproductive success in the great reed warbler Acrocephalus amndinaceus.

The role of auditory feedback in the vocal behavior of the domestic fowl. Effects of deafening on song development in two species of juncos.

Condor, 66,